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hci g

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white space

the parts of a graphical display that contain no graphical elements


a user interface control (e.g., a menu or scroll bar), often predefined by the windowing system used to build a user interface

WIMP (Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointer)

the graphical user interface style popularized by the Xerox Star and the Apple Macintosh in the 1980’s

work-domain analysis

A way of analyzing work that focuses on identifying the functional structure of the work domain with which a human operator will interact (rather than identifying tasks to be performed in the work domain). An analytic phase of cognitive work analysis.

worker-competencies analysis

A way of analyzing work that focuses on the cognitive competencies required of or evident in workers, given their training, expertise, and the way information is represented to them. An analytic phase of cognitive work analysis.


yoked-state space hypothesis

The claim that users of representational devices (such as computer systems) need to mentally represent the device itself, the domain to which the device refers, and the way in which the device represents the domain. See Payne, Squibb, and Howes (1993).


Z notation

A particular notation for formal specification developed principally at Programming Research Group Oxford University. It is based on set theory, with mechanisms to allow large specifications to be separated into parts and structured. See Spivy (1988).

zero-parameter models

Models that can make a priori predictions of quantitative performance of users on an interactive system. The are called zero-parameters because no parameters need to be set from data collected on the system in question; all numeric parameters can be set through a task analysis and pre-existing data from prior research.

zone of proximal development

The inventory of capabilities people can currently demonstrate with assistance (human and material support) and therefore may, in the future, be able to achieve by themselves.

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