Originated by Harvey Sacks, this is often coupled with ethnomethodology and is the study of the way in which conversationalists order and accomplish their exchange of speech with each other as a situated and locally organized matter.
control task analysis
A way of analyzing work that focuses on the control that must be exercised over a work domain and the tasks implied to exercise such control. An analytic phase of cognitive work analysis.
controlled cognitive processes
Processes that require monitoring and effort or attention during their execution. See also automatic cognitive processes.
In the context of cognitive work analysis, factors that limit, but do not prescribe, how effective work activity might be carried out.
A structure describing the concepts in a cognitive system, less specific than a cognitive architecture.
computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW)
The design of systems to support interaction and cooperative working. It emerged in the late 1980s as a result of dissatisfactions with the predominantly cognitivist paradigm employed in human-computer interaction (HCI) and in recognition of the importance of questions regarding organizations, work, and interaction for the design of computer systems.
computational metaphor (of cognition)
Hutchins (1995a, 117) defines a “computation” as referring to “the propagation of representational state across representational media.” The computational metaphor is the position taken that cognition is a form of computation, and that mental state is encoded analogously to computer representations. The term “metaphor.” Within cognitive science, the computational metaphor is also known as the “representational theory of mind,” in which computations are actions on representations. DCog claims that the computational metaphor can be applied to a unit of analysis broader than an individual’s mind (i.e., the functional system).
Two representations that, in addition to being informationally equivilent, make the same information equally readily accessible. See also informational equivalence.
The study of how much time or resources are required to compute things. The complexity of an algorithm or problem is typically measured relative to the size of the problem, n, and expressed in order notation. For example, a time complexity of O(n2) means that the time it takes to perform the calculation increases with the square of the problem size.
Some piece of knowledge is common ground if all the people conversing know it and they all know that the others know it, too. (See the text for a more formal and comprehensive definition.)